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Wednesday, April 28, 2010

RABBIT DIET - Taken from Shamza's Blog

What are the basics of a good house rabbit diet?

A rabbit's diet should be made up of good quality pellets, fresh hay (alfalfa, timothy or oat), water and fresh vegetables. Anything beyond that is a "treat" and should be given in limited quantities.

What makes a good pellet?

Pellets should be fresh, and should be relatively high in fiber (18% minimum fiber). Do not purchase more than 6 weeks worth of feed at a time, as it will become spoiled. Pellets should make up less of a rabbit's diet as he or she grows older, and hay should be available 24 hours a day.

What kinds of veggies should I feed my rabbit?

When shopping for vegetables , look for a selection of different veggies--look for both dark leafy veggies and root vegetables, and try to get different colors. Stay away from beans and rhubarb. Here's a suggested veggie list.

Is feeding hay important?

Hay is essential to a rabbit's good health, providing roughage which reduces the danger of hairballs and other blockages. Apple tree twigs also provide good roughage.

What quantities of food should I feed babies and "teenagers"?


  • Birth to 3 weeks--mother's milk
  • 3 to 4 weeks--mother's milk, nibbles of alfalfa and pellets
  • 4 to 7 weeks--mother's milk, access to alfalfa and pellets
  • 7 weeks to 7 months--unlimited pellets, unlimited hay (plus see 12 weeks below)
  • 12 weeks--introduce vegetables (one at a time, quantities under 1/2 oz.)

What quantities of food should I feed young adults? (7 months to 1 year)

  • introduce timothy hay, grass hay, and oat hays, decrease alfalfa
  • decrease pellets to 1/2 cup per 6 lbs. body weight
  • increase daily vegetables gradually
  • fruit daily ration no more than 1 oz. to 2 oz. per 6 lbs. body weight (because of calories)

What quantities of food should I feed mature adults? (1 to 5 years)

  • Unlimited timothy, grass hay, oat hay, straw
  • 1/4 to 1/2 cup pellets per 6 lbs. body weight (depending on metabolism and/or proportionate to veggies)
  • Minimum 2 cups chopped vegetables per 6 lbs. body weight
  • fruit daily ration no more than 2 oz. (2 TBL) per 6 lbs. body weight.

What quantities of food should I feed senior rabbits? (Over 6 years)

  • If sufficient weight is maintained, continue adult diet
  • Frail, older rabbits may need unrestricted pellets to keep weight up. Alfalfa can be given to underweight rabbits, only if calcium levels are normal. Annual blood workups are highly recommended for geriatric rabbits.

If I feed fewer pellets, how do I compensate?

When you feed a lower quantity of pellets, you must replace the nutritional value without the calories, which is done by increasing the vegetables. Also, a variety of hay and straw must be encouraged all day long, we do this by offering fresh hay a couple of times a day.

Related Articles


  • Suggested Veggies

  • Suggested Fruits

  • Veggie shopping list for your mobile phone

  • Poisonous Plants List (from OR Rabbit Advocates)

  • Pellet Nutrition

  • Food Pyramid

  • The Importance of Fiber

  • FAQ: Treat Foods

  • Lowering Blood Calcium

  • Natural Nutrition Part II: Pellets and Veggies

  • Digestibility in the Rabbit Diet


  • Primary Author(s): Marinell Harriman
    Sources: HRH, various articles from the HRJ, RHN

    Tuesday, April 27, 2010

    Fact About Rabbit - New Zealand White

    New Zealand white rabbits are a breed of rabbit, which despite the name, are American in origin. In 1916, W.S. Preshaw bred the first litter of New Zealand white rabbits with a plan to produce a rabbit that would be excellent for meat and fur trade. The original breeds that were used are unknown, but Angoras are believed to have played some part. (Verhallen 23-35)

    Physiology

    New Zealand white rabbits were bred for their meat and fur, but their body type helped to contribute to them becoming the favorite breed of domestic rabbit. New Zealand whites have well-rounded bodies; slender and muscular faces with round cheeks; large, long back feet; and small, short front feet (Rubins). They have long perforrated ears that stand straight up. Unlike the thick, snowy fur on their bodies, their ears have shorter fur that allows the delicate pale pink of their skin to show through (Rubins). The most noticeable characteristic of New Zealand white rabbits is their bright eyes, which range in shade from pale pink to bright ruby red (Rubins).
    New Zealand white rabbits have large, broad, and muscular bodies. Bucks (males) weigh between 8-10 pounds, while the does (females) weigh between 9-12 pounds (Verhallen 23-35). In addition to their greater size, females are distinguished by the presence of a dewlap, which is flap of fur below the chin that is pulled for a nesting box during pregnancies.

    Albinism

    New Zealand white rabbits have a genetic deviation called albinism. Albinism is caused by a lack of melanin, which is a vital pigment that gives all creatures, including humans, their skin/ fur/ hair/ eye color. The snowy coat of a New Zealand white rabbit is a normal length like other rabbit breeds.

    Diet

    The diet of a New Zealand white rabbit is no different than for any of other rabbit breeds. A high quality feed pellet (protein ~ 15-16%), along with unlimited timothy hay and fresh water and exercise will maintain a healthy individual.

    Domestic use

    In the beginning New Zealand white rabbits were not bred to be a domestic pet. Instead they were bred for their excellent fur and meat. Fryers are slaughtered at two months of age and older rabbits are sold as roasters. The rabbits with high grades of fur are used to make fur coats and fur trimmings. The lower grades are used to make felt hats and glove linings ("Commercial Rabbit Raising"). New Zealand white rabbits are the number one meat rabbit in the United States (Bare 63-65).
    Along with commercial purposes, New Zealand white rabbits are also used for laboratory purposes. Over one million New Zealand white rabbits execute roles during laboratory testing. Rabbits react similarly to humans to diseases and medications. This reaction allows them to be used at pharmaceutical laboratories, the U.S. Public Health building, cancer research centers, and university hospitals. New Zealand white rabbits have been used to develop tests and drugs for diseases like diabetes, diphtheria, tuberculosis, cancer, and heart disease. The effects of skin creams, cosmetics, special diets, and food additives have also been tested on New Zealand white rabbits. (Bare 63-65)

    Breeding

    A female rabbit (doe) is fertile all year long. The gestation period is around 28–31 days. A few days before birth, a nest box should be provided for the new mother. The doe will pull fur from her dewlap and, along with hay or other materials provided, will create a nest. The young are called kittens and are born hairless with their eyes closed. Fur begins to grow in by day 5 or 6 and after 10 to 12 days the kits' eyes will open. At the age of three weeks their mother will begin to wean them off milk, meanwhile the kits will begin to eat hay and pellets. The average number of kits per litter is six but can range from two to twelve. Because rabbits are induced ovulators a doe can become pregnant by the simple act of mating if conditions are right. A doe can get pregnant soon after birth.
    Cannibalism is rare but can happen. In the wild it is a defensive mechanism to remove all blood and dead tissue from the nesting area to avoid detection by predators. If young are stillborn or die after birth, many times the doe will ingest the remains. Males (bucks) rabbits have no part in raising the young. In the wild, bucks will kill litters to induce the female to mate with them, therefore passing along his genes. (Rabbit Production, Cheeke et al.)
    New Zealand Whites are popular rabbits as pets, in the show ring, and unfortunately in the laboratory and meat/fur farm. New Zealand White Rabbits are easily distinguished by their relatively large and solid bodies covered in dense white fur, their upstanding white ears, and their red eyes. New Zealand Whites have become the poster child of the Easter Season, and are often depicted as being the Easter Bunny.
    The name "New Zealand White" is a bit of a misnomer however, as New Zealand Whites were originally bred in America. They were destined for the meat and fur trade even at their inception, and fate has not been much kinder with their widespread use in laboratories. However, as with many animals bred to be slaughtered or tested on, the New Zealand White Rabbit has a cheerful and friendly disposition. They are affectionate, intelligent, and one of the easier breeds to teach tricks. These factors make the New Zealand White an ideal pet choice, as unlike many of the other rabbit breeds, they are less likely to be standoffish and aggressive.
    How big will they get ?
    Generally New Zealand White Rabbits grow to the following sizes:
    Buck: 4 - 5 kgs / 9 - 11 lbs
    Doe: 4.5 - 5.5 kgs / 10 - 12 lbs
    If you are interested in showing your New Zealand White Rabbit, here are some of the characteristics you should be looking for:
    Head: Should be strong and muscular looking, but should not be out of proportion with the rest of the body. The neck should not be long, in fact, a non-existent looking neck is highly regarded in the New Zealand White Rabbit. Those little red eyes should be bright and alert, and should be a nice deep red, and the ears should stand erect.
    Body: The New Zealand White should have a broad and muscular body, well shaped, with large, long back feet and short front feet. There should be plenty of 'meat on the bones', though this should not tip over into sloppy heaviness. The toenails should be either white or flesh colored. The fur should be nice and dense, and should be a lovely white color. It should not be too soft, but have a stiffness to it. If your rabbit is moulting, it is not a good time to show him or her.
    Faults: It is not considered positive if a New Zealand White is too long, or too short in the body, has fur that is woolly or stained, or that tends towards a yellowy cream color rather than white. Long narrow heads also find disfavor, as do ears that don't stand nicely erect.
    Showing rabbits can be a lot of fun, but even if your New Zealand White isn't a champion, they are sure to be a delightful pet and a quiet and gentle companion.

    Monday, April 26, 2010

    Fact About Rabbit - Chinchilla

    Standard Chinchilla


    A Standard Chinchilla
    • Weight: 5-7 lb.
    • ARBA-accepted varieties: Standard
    This breed originated in France and was first introduced after the First World War. The coat color is distinctive: the undercolour of the fur should be slate blue at the base, the middle portion pearl grey, merging into gray and tipped with black--much like the chinchilla, the hair-producing rodent after which this breed is named.

    American Chinchilla

    • Weight: 9-12 lb.
    • ARBA-accepted varieties: Standard
    The American Chinchilla or "Heavyweight Chinchilla" is larger than the Standard Chinchilla but otherwise identical. Standard Chinchillas bred for large size produced this breed. Chinchilla Rabbits originated in France and were bred to standard by M. J. Dybowski. They were introduced to the United States in 1919.
    Bred to be a meat rabbit, the American Chinchilla Rabbit is a stocky, hardy pet. American Chinchilla Rabbits do not require regular grooming. Adult American Chinchilla Rabbits weigh different for each sex. Males (Bucks)- 9-11#, and Females (Does) 10-12#. These stocky rabbits have a slight curve to their medium length bodies, beginning at the nape of their necks and following through to the rump. They carry their ears straight erect. In show, type is judged to be more important than color. American Chinchilla Rabbits are a six-class breed in show. (Any rabbit that matures over 9 pounds is a 6-class breed, maturation weights under 9# are 4-class breeds.) The American Chinchilla Rabbit was bred from large Standard Chinchilla Rabbits in order to produce a meatier rabbit. They were originally called Heavyweight Chinchilla Rabbits.
    American Chinchilla Rabbits will be disqualified in show for having a body type that resembles a Flemish Giant Rabbit. Junior and intermediate American Chinchilla Rabbits may be shown in age classifications higher than their own if they are overweight. Bucks and does under six months and nine pounds are considered juniors. Intermediate American Chinchilla Rabbits are bucks and does six to eight months of age. Bucks weigh less than eleven pounds and does less than twelve. Senior bucks and does are over eight months of age and bucks weigh between nine and 11 pounds. Doe American Chinchilla Rabbits weigh between ten and 12 pounds.
    American Chinchilla Rabbits are good breeders, with an average litter of 7-10 babies.

    Giant Chinchilla


    Giant Chinchilla
    • Weight: 12-16 lb.
    • ARBA-accepted varieties: Standard
    The Giant Chinchilla is a result of crosses between Chinchilla and Flemish Giant breeds; it originates in the United States. This breed is used primarily as a commercial meat rabbit. Other chinchillas include the Standard and the American Chinchillas.

    Sunday, April 25, 2010

    Fact About Rabbit - Flemish Giant

    This fawn doe weighs about 9kg (20 lb).
    The Flemish Giant is a popular breed of domestic rabbit, most famous for its large size compared to other rabbits. The Flemish Giant has a minimum weight of 5 kg, and can live for up to five years or more.

    History

    The origins of the Flemish Giant rabbit are uncertain. It is believed that the Flemish Giant rabbit is the modern descendant of the Patagonian rabbit of Argentina which was brought to Europe by 16th and 17th century Dutch traders. The large rabbits of Flanders were well known at the time, and may have been cross bred with the Patagonian. While the name "Flemish" comes from Flanders, the similarities to the Patagonian lead many to speculate that this giant is in fact descended primarily from the wild Argentine rabbits. This is highly unlikely, because the only native rabbits in Argentina, the tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis) weighs less than two pounds[1] (about 1 kg). The Patagonian hare (Dolichotis patagonum), also known as the mara is a variety of rodent and thus cannot interbreed with European rabbits.[2]
    However, opponents of this theory point out the Argentina Patagonian rabbit is actually classified as a Cavy and association with the Flemish Giant is very doubtful. Instead, it is argued that the Flemish is a line descended from a number of giant breeds from the old Flemish region, possibly including the Steenkonijn (Stone Rabbit) and the European "patagonian" breed (now extinct).[3] An alternative hypothesis is that near the end of the 19th Century, the Flemish Giant as we know it today was developed in eastern Europe, and the first standards for the breed were written by Albert Van Heuverzwijn in the Netherlands 1893[3]. On the other hand, Wilkins (1896) wrote that the Flemish Giant was developed from the Leporine imported into England in the middle 1800s and shares its ancestry with the Belgian Hare.[3]
    The Flemish Giant was imported from England and Belgium to America in the early 1890s. It received no special attention until about 1910 where it started appearing at small livestock shows throughout the country. Today, it is one of the more popular breeds at rabbit shows because of its enormous size and its many colors. It is promoted by the National Federation of Flemish Giant Rabbit Breeders which was formed in 1916.

    Appearance

    As one of the largest breeds of domestic rabbit, the Flemish Giant is a semi-arch type rabbit with its back arch starting back of the shoulders and carrying through to the base of the tail giving a "mandolin" shape. The body of a Flemish Giant Rabbit is long and powerful with good muscular development and relatively broad hindquarters. Bucks have a broad, massive head in comparison to does. Does may have a large, full, evenly carried dewlap (the fold of skin under their chins). The fur of the Flemish Giant is known to be glossy and dense, and when stroked from the hindquarters to the head, the fur will roll back to its original position. ARBA standard has seven different colors, black, blue, fawn, light gray, sandy, steel gray and white. They are shown in six classes (three buck classes and three doe classes): Junior bucks and does under 6 months, Intermediate bucks and does 6–8 months, and Senior bucks and does 8+ months. The minimum show weight for a Senior (older than 8 months) doe is 14 lbs (about 6.4 kg), and the minimum weight of a Senior buck is 13 lbs (about 5.9 kg)(ARBA Standards of Perfection). As with other "giant" breeds, the Flemish Giant grows slowly. A senior doe can take 1 year to reach full maturity. A senior buck can take 1.5 years to reach full maturity. It is not unusual to see a 10 kilo (22 pound) Flemish Giant, and specimens weighing 13 kilos (28 pounds) have been reported.

    Behaviour & Lifestyle

    Flemish Giants are known to be quite placid and laid-back, and as a result, they are known to be docile and tolerant of considerable handling, but could become fearful if handled incorrectly or irresponsibly, and for this reason it is generally recommended that it be under the care of an experienced or mature owner.
    Due to its large size, the Flemish needs a large space to roam around. The House Rabbit Society, an international nonprofit rabbit rescue organization, recommends keeping your rabbit inside the home; in a very large pen or room(s) in the home. Some rabbits use litter boxes due to instinct or after observing cats and other rabbits do so. Rabbits using litter boxes may safely have run of the home, provided adequate protections are in place for safety. The Flemish Giant will require more food compared to other breeds of domestic rabbit (many cups per day). Unlike other breeds, the Flemish Giant will only require mild attention to grooming due to its short-hair. It does molt (lose old coat) in Spring and Fall. Some grooming at that time will keep your Flemish Giant looking nice, and feel better.

    Diet

    Like the majority of rabbits, the most important component of the diet of a Flemish Giant is hay, a roughage that reduces the chance of blockages and malocclusion whilst providing indigestible fiber necessary to keep the gut moving. Grass hays such as timothy are generally preferred over legume hays like clover and alfalfa (lucerne). Legume hays are higher in protein, calories, and calcium, which in excess can cause kidney stones and loose stool. This type of hay should be reserved for young kits or lactating does. A good quality rabbit feed (16-18% protein) is fine for Flemish Giants, as long as they have some supplement feed. A mix of black sunflower seed, beet pulp, steam rolled barley, shelled corn, in equal parts is a good winter mix.
    It is recommended that the Flemish Giant, like other rabbits, receive a standard intake of 2 cups of chopped dark, green, leafy vegetables per 6 pounds (3 kg) of body weight (although this should be provided after four months of age to prevent enteritis) and up to 2 tablespoons of fruit or carrots per 6 pounds of body weight daily. It is common for some owners to provide treats, although in very limited quantities, which can include a few pellets, a slice of strawberry,banana, apple or other healthy foods. Commercial treats are available in the pet stores in shops and can be occasionally used, although even more sparingly, since they typically feature a higher sugar and starch content.
    Some of the vegetables that rabbits enjoy are romaine lettuce, escarole, turnips, collard, kale, parsley, thyme, cilantro, dandelion, and basil. The green, leafy tops of radish and carrots also are excellent sources of nutrients—more than the vegetable itself. New vegetables should be introduced slowly due to the delicate digestive systems of rabbits. It is recommended that cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage be avoided, as they cause gas and can lead to gastrointestinal stasis, which can be fatal. Vegetables such as potatoes should also avoided due to their high starch content. The Flemish Giant will also require an unlimited amount of fresh water, usually provided for in a water crock, tip-proof ceramic pet dish, or hanging water bottle.

    Sexing

    The ideal age for the female Flemish Giant rabbit to start breeding is when they are about 9 months to one year.[4] The first litter should be born before the female is one year old, due to fusing of the pelvic bones[4], that would hinder her ability to give birth naturally. It is prefereable that they have no more litters after the age of three years. The gestation period is between 28–31 days[4]. On average they give birth at 30–32 days. The Flemish Giant rabbit can produce large litters, usually between 5 to 12 in a litter[4].

    Saturday, April 24, 2010

    Fact About Rabbit - Dutch

    The Dutch rabbit, easily identifiable by its characteristic colour pattern, was once the most popular of all rabbit breeds. However, after dwarf rabbits were developed, the popularity of the Dutch rabbit dwindled. Nevertheless, the Dutch rabbit remains one of the top ten most popular breeds worldwide.
    "Although the name suggests that the Dutch rabbit is from the Netherlands, it was actually developed in England. During the 1830s rabbits were imported to England from Ostend in Belgium every week for the meat market. Amongst these rabbits was a breed known as the Petite Brabancon, as it originated from Brabant in Flanders. The Petite Brabancon may still be found in paintings from the fifteenth century. The Dutch rabbit has its genetic roots in this old breed. The Petite Brabancon would often display Dutch markings, and breeders in England selected those with even markings, fixing those markings into the breed we know today."[1]
    Dutch are popular both as pets and among show breeders.

    Appearance

    American Grand Champion Black Dutch buck showing correct marking pattern
    The American Rabbit Breeders Association standard calls for a small to medium rabbit. Dutch are a 4-class breed. Junior bucks and does are those under 6 months of age with a minimum weight of 1.75 lbs. Seniors are 6 months of age and over, weighing between 3.5 and 5.5 lbs, with 4.5 being the ideal weight. Dutch are to have a compact, well-rounded body; rounded head; short, stocky, well-furred ears; and short, glossy "flyback" fur. Six colors (in conjunction with white) are recognized for show:
    Black, a dense, glossy black
    Blue, a medium blue-gray
    Chocolate, a rich chocolate brown
    Gray, (UK: Brown Grey) an Agouti color similar to that of the American cottontail, with bands of color on the hairshaft which produce a ring effect when blown into
    Steel, (UK: Steel Grey) a black color with off-white tips to the hairshaft
    Tortoise, (UK: Tortoiseshell) a bright, clean orange with slate blue shadings along the ears, whisker beds and hindquarters.
    In the UK, Yellow (US: Gold) and Pale Grey (no US equivalent) Dutch are also recognized for show. New varieties under development in the United States include Harlequin (UK: Tri Coloured Dutch) (a pattern of black and orange patches) and Chinchilla. The Dutch rabbit originated in Holland, near the birthplace of the Netherland Dwarf. Both were considered strictly fancy showing animals at the time.
    Despite its popularity, the Dutch rabbit has not changed much over the years. The most striking aspect of the breed is the marking pattern:
    The blaze is an even wedge of white running up the rabbit's face. It is shaped by the cheeks which are the rounded circles of color on either side of the face. The neck marking is a white wedge on the back of the head. The saddle is to be a straight line running behind the shoulders and continuing underneath the rabbit to the undercut across the belly. The stops are located on the rear feet, which should be white from the toes to a point one third the length of the foot.
    The American standard allots 50 of the 100 total points to markings, 25 points to general type, 10 points to color, 10 points to fur and 5 to condition.[2]

    The BRC and UKDRC Standard

    A black and white Dutch rabbit
    Ears short and strong, not pointed, and fairly broad at their base. (10 points)
    Eyes bold and bright, fairly large. (5 points)
    Blaze wedged shaped, carrying up to a point between ears.
    Cheeks as round as possible, and coming as near to the whiskers without touching. Also covering the line of the jawbone. (15 points with Blaze)
    Clean Neck means free from coloured fur immediately behind the ears. (10 points)
    Saddle is the junction between the white and coloured fur on the back. This line to continue right round the animal in an even straight line. (10 points)
    Undercut continuation of the saddle. To be as near up to the front legs as possible without touching them. (10 points)
    Stops white markings on the hind feet, about 1 1/4 inches in length, and to cut cleanly round the foot in a similar manner to the saddle and undercut. (15 points)
    Colour see below for colours. (10 points)
    Shape (type) and Condition compact, cobby, rounded. Shape also means type. Weight and condition also have a bearing on shape or type. The ideal weight of an Adult Dutch should be 41/2 to 5lbs. Hard and firm in flesh. Back well covered with firm flesh. Not baggy in belly. Skin tight, gloss on coat, bright eyes, lively, alert. (15 points)
    Classes for young Dutch rabbits are recommended by the UKDRC as being for Dutch rabbits under five months of age.
    Disqualifications: Wrong coloured eyes (see Colour Standard). Discoloured or wall eyes (pale blue iris), specked eyes (pale blue spots or specks on the iris). Coloured fur on the White part or white patches on the coloured parts. Flesh markings (usually on ears). Trimming (attempts to straighten out irregularities, dyeing white spots on coloured fur etc). Malocclusion and mutilated teeth.
    Black - Deep, solid and carrying well down to the skin, with blue under colour, the deeper the better. Free from white hairs and mealiness or flecking. Eyes dark hazel.
    Blue - Deep, solid , slate blue, colour to carry well down to the skin. Blue under colour, the deeper the better. Free from white hairs and flecked or mealy coat. Eyes dark blue.
    Steel Grey - Dark steel grey merging to pale slate blue in the undercolour. The whole interspersed with black guard hairs. The medium bright and evenly ticked shade is the one to aim for and the extreme tips of the fur will be tipped with steel blue or grey. The mixture to carry well down the sides, flanks and hind feet. Belly colour will be a lighter shade varying with the top colour. Upper part of the tail to match the body colour; underside to tone with the belly colour. Ears to match body, Eyes deep hazel.
    Brown Grey - Slate blue at the base followed by a band of yellowy orange then a black line, finishing by light or nut brown tips to the fur. The whole interspersed by black guard hairs. That is the impression gained when the fur of the brown grey is parted. The general impression should be light or nut brown on ears, cheeks, body, hind feet and top of tail, the whole ticked with black hairs. Belly colour and eye circles (small as possible) bright straw colour. A lighter shade permissible under tail. Eyes hazel, deeper the better.
    Pale Grey - Top colour biscuit carrying well down and merging in to pale slate at the base, the whole interspersed with black ticking. The general impression should be biscuit tipped with black on ears, cheeks, body and top of tail. Belly colour white with pale slate undercolour. Eye circle white but ideally non-existent or as small as possible. Body colour should be present on hind feet. Underside of tail white. Eyes hazel.
    Tortoiseshell - An even shade of orange top colour to carry well down and shading off to a lighter colour to the skin. Ears, belly and under the tail blue-black. Cheeks and hind quarters (flanks) shaded or toned with blue black. Eyes hazel, the deeper the better.
    Chocolate - Deep solid dark chocolate, colour carrying well down to the skin. Undercolour to match the top colour as near as possible. The deeper the under colour the better the top will appear. Free from white hairs and mealiness. Eyes hazel, the deeper the better.
    Yellow - An even shade of yellow throughout. The exact shade is not so important as that the colour should be even and extend to the belly or undercut and no eye circles. In fact, a self colour free from chinchillation on cheeks and hind feet. Eyes hazel.
    Description of terms used: Flecking or Mealiness - Individual hairs more than one colour in selfs. e.g. Blacks should be black at the tip of the fur, that colour carrying down the fur as far as possible, then merging into blue. In flecked or mealy exhibits the individual fur would be black, then dark grey, then a deeper shade before merging into blue at the base.
    Chinchillation - A mixture of colours ticked with a darker shade, often found on the cheeks of yellows. The steel, pale and brown grey are chinchillated varieties to a certain extent.
    The BRC has a separate standard for Tri Coloured Dutch.

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